 Footnotes

1 A third possibility could also exist - energy is fluctuating. This alternative has little descriptive quality, since, if it is fluctuating, it is either tending to decrease, be constant or increase.

2 One could imagine a scenario where a diamond is transported back in time (say from year 2150 to 2000) to a cavern on Mars for future "discovery". Now these atoms are not copies, but identical atoms! That is, we have put matter (therefore, mass/energy) into the past. Further, as the time line progresses to the future, another diamond is transported to the past, then another, ... Suddenly, in the view of the destination time in the past (year 2000), the entire region of the Solar System explodes with mass/energy until the time machine is destroyed.

3 If c is separated into its constituent parts, distance and frequency (1/t), then the state density is m * d2 * f2.

4 Property is a characteristic, which may or may not be variable; state is the value of a property.

5 The idea that several solar masses are sufficient to trap everything, including light, in a black hole is commonly accepted.

6 The term relativity refers to this ability to take either object as a reference and has nothing to do with the notion that laws are relative. In fact, it is because we hold that physical laws are invariant - that there are absolutes - that either object may be considered the reference.

7 When defining, "rectangle", it is described as having two properties - length and width. If it is also constrained to have constant area, that constraint is imposed by an external condition and is not a property of "rectangle".

8 "Constant" here refers the "local" value of c.

9 Since space is defined as separation with distance and temporality as properties, "locality" would require specification for both of these properties.

10 The twin paradox may appear to violate the idea that an object does not change. However, as one of the "twins" experiences acceleration, he undergoes increasing time dilation, which, if subtracted during deceleration to keep the twins at the same age, would represent a mechanism to travel backwards in time - a clear violation of the law of conservation of energy.

11 The acceleration at the surface of this hypothetical particle is not the same as the fundamental acceleration we are describing, but rather a net acceleration due to the particle's volume.

12 If the gravitational constant, G, at 6.67e-11 represents this fundamental acceleration (i.e. at an elemental mass of 1.075e-36 kg), then the change in c would be -0.002 m/s per year.